The Pranhita river is part of Godavari river basin with an total catchment area of 1,10,000 Sq.Km.. The Pranhita Sub basin lies between East longitudes 75055’ to 80055’ & North Latitudes 18045’ to 22050’. It flows through Satpura ranges & Ajantha ranges & further through Satpura Plateau & plains of Vidharbha region of Maharashtra before meeting Godavari river at Keleshwaram on the Andhra Pradesh – Maharashtra border.The Pranhita River System consists of mainly four major ributaries namely a) Wainganga b) Wardha c) Penganga d)Peddavagua
- Wainganga River : The Wainganga River originates near village Partabpur or Mundara (21057’N & 79034’E) about 20 Km from the town of Satapura plateau and flows in a wide half circle, bending and winding among the spurs of the hills from the west to the east of the Seoni District. Here it is directed to the South being joined by the Thanwar river from Mandla and forms boundary of Seoni for some Kilometers. until it enters Balaghat. Subsequently emerging from the hills the river flows south & south-west through rich rice lands of Balaghat & Bhandara & Pauni. The principal tributaries of the river are Bagh in Balaghat, Bawanthari , Kanhan Chulband in Bhandara & Garvhi in Chandrapur. It then flows through Chandrapur & Gadchiroli Districts and after a course of about 570 Km joins the Wardha at Seoni in Chandrapur district. The total catchment area of the river upto It’s confluence with river Wardha is 51000 Sq. Km.
- Wardha River : Wardha River originates at an altitude of 777 Metres in the Satpura Range near Multai in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh from the origin it flows 32 Km in Madhya Pradesh and then enter into Maharashtra. After traversing 528 Kms, it joins Wainganga at Seoni in Chandrapur District. Kar,Wena, Jam, Erai are the left tributaries and Madu, Bembla & Penganga are the right tributaries of the river. The total catchment area of the river is about 48000 Sq. Km.
- Penganga River : The Penganga river originates in the Ajantha ranges in Aurangabad district in Maharashtra. It then flows through Buldhana & Washim District & flows through border of Washim & Hingoli District. Then it acts as a boundary between Yavatmal and Nanded districts of Maharashtra. The river flows along State border between Maharashtra & Andhra Pradesh before converging into Wardha river near small village called wadha in Wani Tehsil of Yavatmal district. The total length of the river in 676 Km. The main tributaries of the river are Adan, Kas, Arunavati Kayadhu & Pus. The total catchment area of the river upto confluence with river Wardha is about 20,000 Sq. Km.
- Peddavagu River : The river originates about 10 Km upstream of Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh and passing through an stretch of about 180 Km converges directly in to Pranhita River near village Rampur in Gadchiroli District. The total catchment area of the river is about 6000 Sq. Km.
Pranhita sub basin lies in the medium rainfall zone. The average annual rainfall in Seoni, Balaghat, Gondia, Bhandara basin varies from 1400 mm to 1600 mm for the remaining the average annual rainfall varies from 900 mm to 1200 mm. Most of the rainfall is received during the South-West monsoon from June to October.In the winter the minimum temperature varies from 70C to 130C & Maximum temperature varies from 390 C to 470C, Month of May is the hottest & December January is the coldest month.